By Roger D. Cone
Content material: pt. 1. historic views -- Proopiomelanocortin and the melanocortin peptides -- Melanocortins and pigmentation -- Melanocortins and adrenocortical functionality -- results of melanocortins within the anxious process -- Peripheral results of melanocortins -- pt. 2. Characterization of the melanocortin receptors -- Melanocrotin receptor expression and serve as within the worried approach -- Cloning of the melanocortin receptors -- pt. three. Biochemical mechanism of receptor motion -- The molecular pharmacology of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone: structure-activity relationships for melanotropins at melanocortin receptors -- In vitro mutagenesis experiences of melanocortin receptor coupling and ligand binding -- pt. four. Receptor functionality -- the melanocortin-1 receptor -- The human melanocortin-1 receptor -- The melanocortin-2 receptor in general adrenocrotical funciton and familial adrenocrorticotropic hormone resistance -- The melanocortin-3 receptor -- The melanocortin-4 receptor -- The melanocortin-5 receptor -- pt. five. Receptor legislation -- rules of the melanocortin receptors by means of Agouti -- Melanocrotins and cancer -- law of the mouse and human melanocortin-1 receptor -- pt. 6. destiny vistas -- destiny vistas
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Extra resources for The Melanocortin Receptors (The Receptors)
8). At least two different nonallelic gene products of POMC were discovered in the mouse and rat pituitary gland (257). Several POMC variants or mutant forms were also found in humans: one of them contains a 9-bp deletion, corresponding to the loss of the Ser-Ser-Gly sequence between residues 67–73 (258). Expression and processing of the variant form in Chinese hamster ovary cells was considerably POMC and Melanocortin Peptides 41 reduced as compared to normal POMC (259). The existence of another variant of POMC-mRNA was suggested for the human epidermis (260).
Lerner, A. , and Fitzpatrick, T. B. (1954) In vitro bioassay for melanocyte stimulating hormone. Endocrinology 54, 553–560. 3. Lerner, A. B. and Lee, T. H. (1955) Isolation of a homogeneous melanocytestimulating hormone from hog pituitary gland. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 77, 1066–1067. 4. Lee, T. H. and Lerner A. B. (1956) Isolation of melanocyte-stimulating hormone from hog pituitary gland. J. Biol. Chem. 221, 943–959. 5. Geschwind, I. , Li, C. , and Barnafi, L. (1956) Isolation and structure of melanocyte-stimulating hormone from porcine pituitary glands.
ACTH appears to stimulate calcium uptake in rat lymphocytes (143), and _-MSH induces IL-10 production in human monocytes (144). These latter cells express MC1 receptors, which are upregulated after exposure of the cells to endotoxin or mitogen for 3–5 days (145). The modulation of immune responses by _-MSH requires preceding upregulation of MC1-R expression and costimulatory factors. Analysis of mouse pro-B-lymphocytes showed that these cells express MC5-R (146). In a preclinical study with plasma from cardiopulmonary bypass patients, which usually react to surgery with diffuse inflammatory responses and whose plasma hyperstimulates monocytes and granulocytes in culture, pretreatment of the cells with _-MSH significantly diminished the hyperstimulation (147).