By Dr. Julian Stangl, Dr. Cristian Mocuta, Dr. Virginie Chamard, Dr. Dina Carbone(auth.)
A finished evaluation of the probabilities and capability of X-ray scattering utilizing nanofocused beams for probing subject on the nanoscale, together with counsel at the layout of nanobeam experiments. The monograph discusses a number of assets, together with unfastened electron lasers, synchrotron radiation and different moveable and non-portable X-ray sources.
For scientists utilizing synchrotron radiation or scholars and scientists with a historical past in X-ray scattering tools in general.
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Extra resources for Nanobeam X-Ray Scattering: Probing Matter at the Nanoscale
Intrinsically, it defines the lateral resolution of an X-ray measurement determining the volume of the sample over which the measured properties are averaged. The beam divergence, that is the angular range in which the radiation is distributed, affects the precision of the measurement of the q vector, through the dependence of q on the diffraction angle θ . 39) @θ λ λ Beam coherence Most of the X-ray sources are intrinsically incoherent: the wave produced by one emission point of the source undergoes irregular temporal fluctuations in its amplitude and phase.
The second category includes synchrotron sources and X-ray free electron lasers (X-FEL). The working principle of these sources is the generation of photons from accelerated electron beams (e-beam). In synchrotron sources the e-beam follows a circular trajectory, while in the XFEL they are accelerated in Linear Accelerators 33 34 2 X-ray Diffraction Principles (LINAC). 4, can be used as discriminators in the comparison between the different sources. Beam energy and bandwidth The energy spectrum of X-rays produced by fluorescence in laboratory sources has two components.
In practice, however, this is not possible: It would require the knowledge of the phases in the diffraction plane, which are unfortunately not experimentally accessible. This issue is referred to as the phase problem, and many methods have been proposed to solve it. One of those is based on the use of coherent X-rays, and will be largely discussed in Chapter 7. 3 Reflectivity In this section we introduce general principles and formulas of reflection and refraction of X-rays at surfaces, relevant for the understanding of some of the X-ray focusing elements presented in Chapter 3.