By C.J. de Ranter, Michiel Steyaert
De Ranter (RF MAGIC, US) and Steyaert (KU Leuven, Belgium) describe layout recommendations for complementary steel oxide semiconductor communique circuits, in particular oscillators and upconverters. The layout instruments defined are according to topology-specific layout templates that may be used as a framework for automating layout techniques. the outline of upconverter layout is gifted as a customary case instance, because it begins from the industry viewpoint and runs via high-level topology layout, derivation of block-level necessities, description of ultimate circuits, and presentation of dimension effects.
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De Ranter (RF MAGIC, US) and Steyaert (KU Leuven, Belgium) describe layout options for complementary steel oxide semiconductor communique circuits, particularly oscillators and upconverters. The layout instruments defined are in keeping with topology-specific layout templates that may be used as a framework for automating layout tactics.
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Extra resources for High Data Rate Transmitter Circuits
When enough vias are used in between the parallel metal layers of the coil‚ this simplification does not introduce any errors in the simulations. However‚ care must be taken for technologies with a low resistive‚ thick top metal layer (possibly in Cu) because for this non-homogeneous structure‚ the vertical current distribution might differ substantially between physical reality and simulation. The physical layer construction of the inductor as visualized in Fig. 12(b) is thus reduced to the simplified layer construction of Fig.
1 Introduction Over the past few years, the use of on-chip inductors has had a growing interest, both in academic research as in industrial applications ([Sama ISSCC01, Fili ISSCC01, Su ISSCC02, Apar ISSCC02]). An on-chip inductor is used as an alternative for ([Cran CICC97, Crols VLSI96]): 1 a bondwire inductor 2 an off-chip inductor, being a discrete component The advantage of using an on-chip inductor is the higher reproducibility of the inductance value as compared to (1) and a lower assembly cost combined with a higher reliability due to a reduced number of discrete components as compared to (2).
Although the predicted for the transistor is somewhat pessimistic in the constructed model, the 3dB bandwidth of the amplifier (BW) is still overestimated by this model. However, the obtained accuracy of 5% is acceptable for circuit simulations. In Fig. 6 the voltage transfer functions of the amplifier are shown; for the construction-based RF model drawn in full and for the fit-model from the silicon foundry drawn in dashed line. 2 with a gate length of and on the right for nMOS transistors M2a and M2b with a gate length of As can be seen, the construction-based model fits rather well to the measurement-based foundry model for frequencies up to 10 GHz for a gate length of and up to 6 GHz for a gate length of Of course, this comparison is far from complete since the use of the transistor in a totally different circuit could show shortcomings of the model that do not show up in this circuit.