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By Klaus F. Zimmermann

It is a definitive review of the present state of affairs concerning migration in a entire variety of eu international locations with chapters at the united states, Canada, and New Zealand for reasons of comparability. every one nation learn is written through an area specialist and the publication as an entire is edited by means of considered one of Europe's best students within the economics of migration.

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This chapter observes that the ethnic minority population exhibits rising educational levels, especially in the second and subsequent generations. Labour market disadvantages seem not to reflect discrimination, but the assimilation process, whereby immigrants improve their labour market status with length of residence. The immigration effects on the native labour market have hardly been studied in Britain so far, but the impacts have been evaluated at most as being modest. It is concluded that the social and political impacts vastly outweigh any conceivable economic effects.

9 In 1970, immigrant men had an employment rate that exceeded natives, but ever since there has been a decline in the employment rate of the immigrants. Immigrant women, also, had a higher employment rate than Swedes in 1970, but even if the rate rose somewhat after 1970, they were caught and passed by Swedish women who gradually increased their employment rate. 7 Wadensjo¨ 1972; Ohlsson 1975; Jonung 1982; Reinans 1982; Ekberg 1983; 1990a, 1993b; Harkman 1994; Bevelander 1995, 2000; Scott 1999; Rosholm et al.

Despite the negative association that enclaves have in the Swedish debate, the results show that they actually reduce idleness. 16 One possible explanation of this over-representation is that self-employment may offer an entrance to a labour market that otherwise excludes outsiders. 2. Earnings and Wages Due to poor wage statistics for Sweden, little is known about immigrants’ wages. Early studies indicate that there were little or no differences 12 14 17 Bengtsson and Scott 1998. Edin, Fredriksson, and A˚slund 2001.

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