By Chris Hardacre, Vasile Parvulescu, James J Spivey, Robin D Rogers
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8 Enzymatic codeine oxidation in an ionic liquid. modification of the enzyme to make it more resistent to denaturation by the IL. 8). The low solubility of the substrate in both water and common organic solvents led the authors to the idea of using an IL as the reaction medium. To this end they designed an IL containing a hydroxyl functionality in both the cation and the anion, based on the assumption that the enzyme would be stable in an IL that more closely resembled an aqueous environment. This proved to be the case; an IL consisting of a 3-hydroxypropyl-1methylimidazolium cation and a glyoxylate anion dissolved the substrate, product, enzymes and cofactor and the dissolved enzyme was more active, even at a water content of 100 ppm, than as a suspension in other ILs.