By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements
This file examines the literature on organic results of publicity to modulated radiofrequency (RF) power to figure out even if current publicity criteria and instructions must be transformed extra to take modulation under consideration. Modulation happens in a wide selection of types really good for radar, instant communications, broadcast communications, and commercial techniques with the outcome that many waveforms, pulse widths, spectral houses, and temporal styles desire attention. In pulse modulation the RF power is speedily switched off and on, while amplitude modulation produces a regularly altering point of RF power. Frequency-modulated RF strength has sign amplitudes that stay primarily consistent, yet differ in frequency inside a few narrowly prescribed variety and extra heavily resembles nonmodulated RF strength than pulsed or amplitude modulated RF fields. For radar, pulses commonly have periods measured in fractions of a microsecond to a couple microseconds. periods among pulses (or pulse teams) are significantly longer leading to low accountability cycle, that's, RF power is on for a small fraction of time in the course of every one interval. yet pulsed indications used for communications platforms could have periods within the diversity of milliseconds, greater responsibility cycles, and extra modulation positive aspects. really good army structures represent a subcategory with very excessive, short pulses.
desk of Contents
2. In vitro reviews
three. In vivo experiences
four. Human reports
five. Epidemiological reviews
6. Biophysical issues
7. dialogue and Conclusions
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Additional info for Biological Effects of Modulated Radiofrequency Fields
An SAR of approximately 4 W kg –1 was required to reach this threshold temperature. Second, different power densities were necessary to produce equal SARs in different size animals. Rhesus monkeys required much higher field power densities to alter behavior than squirrel monkeys, and rats required the least. 6 GHz) was greater than predicted. Microwave frequencies at which energy is absorbed primarily in the surface layers of an animal produce different behavioral effects than deeper penetrating waves at lower frequencies.
And BERG, H. (1995). “Electrostimulation of yeast proliferation,” Bioelectrochem. Bioenerg. 38, 423–425. , GINSBURG, K. C. (1993). “The effect of pulsed microwaves on passive electrical properties and interspike intervals of snail neurons,” Bioelectromagnetics 14, 503–520. R. D. (1974). “Microwave hearing: Evidence for thermoacoustic auditory stimulation by pulsed microwaves,” Science 185, 256–258. , EGGERT, S. and RUPPE, I. (1998). “Effects of microwaves emitted by cellular phones on human slow brain potentials,” Bioelectromagnetics 19, 384–387.
It has long been held that the hearing effect requires pulsed energy. An interesting study by Wilson et al. (1980) showed that brain activity could be mapped by studying the uptake of labeled [14C]2-deoxy-D-glucose in the auditory pathways of the brain. Ablation of middle ear and cochlea showed that pulsed microwaves did indeed initiate neural responses from the cochlea. They also discovered that some responses could be elicited in the auditory pathways by CW microwaves at a power density of 25 W m–2.