By Patricia H. Clarke (auth.), Edward R. Leadbetter, Jeanne S. Poindexter (eds.)
Any department of biology relies for its growth at the improvement of latest ideas and to a lesser, yet occasionally an important, quantity at the removing of inaccurate notions. realizing the jobs of micro organism required first the statement that such minute creatures existed, and as a result the exper imental demonstrations that their presence was once beneficial for the prevalence of specific phenomena. during this first quantity, the authors assessment the advance of clinical figuring out of the function of microbes as brokers of various ordinary tactics. particularly absent is a separate evaluation of the historical past of microbes as brokers of ailment, a his tory to be had in lots of different courses. unfortunately absent is a overview of the his tory of microbes as brokers of inorganic alterations, a significant omission that resulted from the sickness of the potential writer overdue within the instruction of this quantity. the subject will after all be taken care of in later volumes, even supposing now not predominantly in a ancient demeanour. in a different way, the emphasis during this quantity is at the historical past of figuring out interrelationships among modes of bacterial life and the inanimate surroundings. those relationships have been verified lengthy be fore multicellular, differentiated or ganisms seemed as power microbial habitats, and their popularity and elucidation contributed drastically to the widened appreciation of bacterial di versity and the significance of those less complicated creatures to the physiochemical stipulations of the biosphere.
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Additional info for Bacteria in Nature: Volume 1: Bacterial Activities in Perspective
He discussed the observations of Griffith (1928) that avirulent pneumococci could be transformed to virulence by extracts from heat-killed virulent strains and mentioned other cases where bacteria grown in the presence of extracts of related virulent forms were said to have acquired the virulence THE SCIENTIFIC STUDY OF BACTERIA 23 properties of the latter. He was also able to discuss the results of Avery et al. (1944), published in the previous year, on transformation of pneumococci by DNA. " Within a few years, Tatum and Lederberg (1947) had demonstrated that Escherichia coli could exchange genetic material by conjugation, and thus began the revolution in genetics that has made E.
Within a few years, Tatum and Lederberg (1947) had demonstrated that Escherichia coli could exchange genetic material by conjugation, and thus began the revolution in genetics that has made E. coli the most widely cultivated organism in the world. The genetics of bacteria turned out not to be classical in the Mendelian sense but to have an elegant simplicity that facilitated fundamental discoveries in biochemistry and molecular biology. Nucleic acid had been discovered by Miescher in 1869, at about the time that Mendel had arrived at his laws of inheritance, but it was not until the techniques for studying the genetics of bacteria and then viruses became available that the chemical basis of inheritance could be firmly established.
On the other hand, relatedness in terms of comparisons of details of molecular structure could be examined in much greater detail. It became possible to make comparisons between sequences of homologous proteins and between sequences of nucleic acids. , 1977) added to the complexity of the bacterial genome. The study of the inconstancy of bacteria has now become more interesting than the study of constancy (Clarke, 1982). The Impact of Genetics Kaplan (1952) reviewed the genetics of microorganisms and discussed methods of obtaining mutants of E.