By Aristotle, A. L. Peck
In background of Animals, Aristotle analyzes “differences”—in elements, actions, modes of lifestyles, and character—across the animal state, in education for setting up their explanations, that are the fear of his different zoological works. Over 500 species of animals are thought of: shellfish, bugs, birds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, and mammals—including humans. In Books I–IV, Aristotle supplies a comparative survey of inner and exterior physique elements, together with tissues and fluids, and of feel colleges and voice. Books V–VI research reproductive equipment, breeding conduct, and embryogenesis in addition to a few secondary intercourse transformations. In Books VII–IX, Aristotle examines ameliorations between animals in feeding; in habitat, hibernation, migration; in enmities and sociability; in disposition (including adjustments relating to gender) and intelligence. right here too he describes the human reproductive process, perception, being pregnant, and obstetrics. booklet X establishes the female’s contribution to iteration. The Loeb Classical Library® version of background of Animals is in 3 volumes. an entire index to all ten books is incorporated within the 3rd (Volume XI of the Aristotle edition). similar Volumes Aristotle’s organic corpus comprises not just background of Animals, but in addition components of Animals, move of Animals, development of Animals, new release of Animals, and demanding elements of at the Soul and Parva Naturalia. Aristotle’s common methodology—“first we needs to grab the variations, then attempt to notice the causes” (Ha 1.6)—is utilized to the examine of vegetation by means of his more youthful co-worker and inheritor to his institution, Theophrastus: Enquiry into vegetation reports alterations around the plant nation, whereas De Causis Plantarum stories their factors. within the later old global, either Pliny’s traditional background and Aelian’s at the features of Animals draw considerably on Aristotle’s organic paintings.
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Extra resources for Aristotle: History of Animals, Books I-III (Loeb Classical Library, Volume 437)
Again, in all viviparous animals furnished with feet the following properties are observed in the testicles themselves. From the aorta there extend vein-like ducts to the head of each of the testicles, and another two from the kidneys; these two from the kidneys are supplied with blood, while the two from the aorta are devoid of it. From the head of the testicle alongside of the testicle itself is a duct, thicker and more sinewy than the other just alluded to-a duct that bends back again at the end of the testicle to its head; and from the head of each of the two testicles the two ducts extend until they coalesce in front at the penis.
As a general rule blooded animals are furnished with a spleen; but with the great majority of non-viviparous but oviparous animals the spleen is so small as all but to escape observation; and this is the case with almost all birds, as with the pigeon, the kite, the falcon, the owl: in point of fact, the aegocephalus is devoid of the organ altogether. With oviparous quadrupeds the case is much the same as with the viviparous; that is to say, they also have the spleen exceedingly minute, as the tortoise, the freshwater tortoise, the toad, the lizard, the crocodile, and the frog.
These ducts in the rutting season get filled with the genital fluid, and, if the ducts be squeezed, the sperm oozes out white in colour. As to the differences observed in male fishes of diverse species, the reader should consult my treatise on Anatomy, and the subject will be hereafter more fully discussed when we describe the specific character in each case. The males of oviparous animals, whether biped or quadruped, are in all cases furnished with testicles close to the loin underneath the midriff.