By Thomas Paterson, J. Garry Clifford, Robert Brigham, Michael Donoghue, Kenneth Hagan
This best-selling textual content offers the easiest synthesis of present scholarship on hand to stress the subject of expansionism and its manifestations.
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Additional resources for American Foreign Relations: A History, Volume 1: To 1920
James’s in 1785. When Adams protested British failure to send a minister to the United States, he was curtly asked whether there should be one envoy or thirteen. Adams could make no dent in British policy toward trade or the forts. The author of the Model Treaty saw the impossibility of free trade. ”109 British smugness infuriated the New Englander. ”110 Adams repeated one message in dispatch after dispatch during his three frustrating years in England: Congress must have the power to regulate commerce; otherwise the British would not negotiate.
So did most delegates at Philadelphia. ”130 Congress’s last official measure under the Articles of Confederation during the same summer of 1787 dealt with this very issue of westward expansion. With a bare quorum of eight states represented, the dying Congress enacted the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which set up guidelines for governing the territories of the Old Northwest until they became ready for statehood. Its terms called for Congress to appoint a governor, secretary, and three judges, who would govern until the population of a territory reached 5,000 free men, at which time the settlers would elect a legislature.
103 Relations with England quickly deteriorated after 1783. In the first flush of peace it had looked as though the United States might actually conclude a favorable commercial treaty with the British. Lord Shelburne’s grand scheme of rapprochement would have continued the benefits Americans had enjoyed under the Crown, including free access of American goods and ships to British and West Indian ports. But Shelburne was soon forced from office for having given the Americans too much, and his successors found commercial reciprocity with the United States a political impossibility.