By Alexander of Aphrodisias
The observation of Alexander of Aphrodisias on Aristotle's earlier Analytics 1.8-22 is the most historical statement, by means of the 'greatest' commentator, at the chapters of the earlier Analytics within which Aristotle invented modal common sense - the good judgment of propositions approximately what's invaluable or contingent (possible). during this quantity, which covers chapters 1.8-13, Alexander of Aphrodisias reaches the bankruptcy during which Aristotle discusses the thought of contingency. additionally incorporated during this quantity is Alexander's statement on that a part of earlier Analytics 1.17 and is the reason the conversion of contingent propositions (the remainder of 1.17 is integrated within the moment quantity of Mueller's translation).
Aristotle additionally invented the syllogism, a method of argument concerning premises and a end. Modal propositions may be deployed in syllogism, and within the chapters incorporated during this quantity Aristotle discusses syllogisms including beneficial propositions in addition to the extra debatable ones containing one worthwhile and one non-modal premiss. The dialogue of syllogisms containing contingent propositions is reserved for quantity 2.
In each one quantity, Ian Mueller presents a accomplished rationalization of Alexander's remark on modal good judgment as an entire.
Read Online or Download Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Prior Analytics: 1.8-13 (with 1.17, 36b35-37a31) (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle) PDF
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Additional info for Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Prior Analytics: 1.8-13 (with 1.17, 36b35-37a31) (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle)
39. , pp. 79-80, n. 157. Although we do not claim to be able to eliminate these difficulties, we hope to give some sense of what Alexander has in mind. 40. See especially 38,23-6. 41. g. at 156,18). Alexander never considers the possibility of a proposition which held at some time in the past but never thereafter, but it does not seem unreasonable for logical purposes to take his references to the future in such contexts to include the past, so that a contingent proposition is understood to be one that holds at some time but not at the present.
The controversy concerning these four syllogisms transfers to any N+U combination held by Aristotle to have a necessary conclusion. 3. These cases are very problematic, especially Barbara and Celarent; their problematic nature transmits itself to combinations reduced to them. 4. The difficulties attaching to Barbara1(UC‘C’) transfer to Barbara1(NC‘C’). New difficulties arise with Celarent1(NCCu). 5. Alexander wavers between thinking Aristotle espouses Bocardo3(CN‘C’) and OAI3(CN‘C’), the waste case of Disamis3(CN‘C’).
Aristotle’s argument that the latter converts seems to be a straightforward indirect argument moving from ‘It is not possible that cloak holds of nothing white’ to ( C N ) NEC(Cloak i White) to (II-conversionn) NEC(White i Cloak). Alexander insists on reparsing what Aristotle says to make it fit the case of contingency as holding: He says ‘for if it is necessary that it holds of some, then white will also hold of some cloak by necessity’ since a particular affirmative necessary proposition must be the opposite of a contingent universal negative one, and the unqualified proposition was assumed as contingent in its verbal formulation.