By Alexander of Aphrodisias
The observation of Alexander of Aphrodisias on Aristotle's earlier Analytics 1.8-22 is a crucial textual content, being the most historical remark with chapters during which Aristotle invented modal good judgment - the good judgment of propositions approximately what's beneficial or contingent (possible). the 1st quantity of Ian Mueller's translation lined chapters 1.8-13, and reached so far as the bankruptcy during which Aristotle mentioned the idea of contingency. during this, the second one quantity, the 'greatest' commentator, Alexander, concludes his dialogue of Aristotle's modal common sense.
Aristotle additionally invented the syllogism, a mode of argument regarding premises and a end. Modal propositions should be deployed in syllogisms, and within the chapters integrated during this quantity Aristotle discusses the entire syllogisms containing at the least one contingent premiss.
In every one quantity, Ian Mueller presents a accomplished rationalization of Alexander's statement on modal common sense as a complete.
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Extra info for Alexander of Aphrodisias: On Aristotle Prior Analytics 1.14-22 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle)
25b3-14)48 Alexander understands Aristotle to be dealing here with the situation in which an unqualified or necessary proposition is said to be contingent, and to be conceding that EE-conversion does hold in those cases. According to Alexander, Aristotle illustrates necessity with the proposition ‘It is contingent that horse holds of no human’ and unqualified holding with ‘It is possible that white holds of no cloak’. Aristotle’s argument that the latter converts seems to be a straightforward indirect argument moving from ‘It is not possible that cloak holds of nothing 32 Introduction white’ to ( C ) NEC(Cloak i White) to (II- conversionn) NEC(White i Cloak).
Aristotle’s handling of the waste cases is not always perspicuous. He mentions some and not others, and, for example, he chooses to endorse Celarent1(CCC) without mentioning EAA1(CCC). For the most part the waste cases are of no interest, and we shall not worry about them. But in some places, particularly after Aristotle loses sight of – or perhaps interest in – the various notions of contingency which he has brought into play, Alexander addresses difficulties implicit in determining exactly what waste case Aristotle is espousing.
It is hard to see how Theophrastus could possibly accept Bocardo3( N ,U, N ) and reject Barbara1(NUN), and both are equally violations of the peiorem rule. However, Alexander proceeds to give us Theophrastus’ U-for-C proof for Bocardo3(‘C’U‘C’). He changes CON(AoC) into AoC, assumes NEC(AaB) and infers (Baroco2(NUU)) BoC, contradicting BaC. We do not know how to make sense out of Theophrastus’ position – if he had one –, but it seems clear that he was willing to use illegitimate U-for-C argumentation.