By Giuseppe Pezzotti
Based on an interdisciplinary strategy that without delay bridges orthopedic ideas to floor technological know-how, this e-book information state of the art examine in bioceramics technological know-how, actual chemistry, biomedical optics, and nanomechanics. The publication cites the various extra traditional spectroscopic characterization techniques—including Raman and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy. those innovations were used to unveil molecular scale phenomena of either chemical and mechanical foundation taking place on the sliding surfaces of bioceramic joints. those options are of severe value to researchers as they're proper to the improvement of recent biomaterials.
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Extra resources for Advanced materials for joint implants
Although using the same measurement principle, the AFM allows for further enhancing spatial resolution down to the atomic scale [159–161]. The AFM relies upon a very sharp tip held by a cantilever and brought in contact with the sample surface. As the tip is scanned across the sample, variations in the deflection of the cantilever appear as the sample profile changes. These variations are used as the error signal arises from the deflection of the probe assembly as it moves in response to features on the sample surface.
While the main aim of this chapter is to provide a brief synopsis of some of those less known (but newly developed or newly extended) analytical techniques, a number of references are also listed that detail how those technique are specifically applied to the characterization of biomaterials. In addition, some discussion is 33 34 Characterization Methods also included to more common characterization methods such as fracture mechanics [147–149] that have been long performed in biomaterials research but require updating.
31] have estimated that the tensile stress induced in the collagen fibers experiences a magnitude of about 12 times the applied pressure (peak value of about 10 MPa); thus, the maximum tensile stress that the collagen fibers should sustain is about 120 MPa. Although at present it is not possible to relate this stress to the ultimate tensile strength of collagen fibers, it would seem natural that the structure of cartilage can cope with pressure gradients in the lateromedial direction since the collagen fibers in its superficial layer are observed to predominantly align along the lateromedial direction.