By Neil Pearce Centre for Public Health Research Massey University
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Additional resources for A Short Introduction to Epidemiology 2nd Edition, 2005
On the need for the rare disease assumption in case-control studies. Am J Epidemiol 116: 547-53. Pearce N (1993). What does the odds ratio estimate in a case-control study? Int J Epidemiol 22: 1189-92. Gustavsson P, Plato N, Hallqvist J, et al (2001). A population-based casereferent study of myocardial infarction and occupational exposure to motor exhaust, other combustion products, organic solvents, lead and dynamite. Epidemiol 12: 222-8. Pearce N (1998). The four basic epidemiologic study types.
The authors suggested that the 43 findings could be due either to environmental exposures related to the earthquake or to severe psychogenic stress. They noted that studies in wild rodents living in seismic regions have shown similar findings. Longitudinal Studies Longitudinal studies (cohort studies) involve repeated observation of study participants over time (Pearce et al, 1998). Incidence studies (chapter 2) are a subgroup of longitudinal study in which the outcome measure is dichotomous. g.
G. high, medium and low exposure), or exposure may be measured as a continuous variable (see chapter 8). However, although this requires minor changes to the data analysis (see chapter 12), it does not alter the fourfold categorisation of study design options presented above. 41 been labelled as “retrospective” studies, when this is in fact not an inherent part of their design. g. recall bias) arises from the retrospective collection of exposure information, irrespective of whether the study is an incidence, incidence casecontrol, prevalence, or prevalence casecontrol study.