By John Kekes
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Additional info for A Justification of Rationality
The objection is that existential presuppositions cannot be distinguished from the metaphysical theory in terms of which they are expressed and tested. This can be met by showing that the distinction follows from some of the things Carnap himself says. Carnap writes: If someone wishes to speak in his language about a new kind of entities, he has to introduce a system of new ways of speaking, subject to new rules; we shall call this procedure the construction of a linquistic famework for the new entities in question.
The second group comprises statements about one's experiences, such as that one has often perceived his own body and other things in the environment, that one has often observed such facts as that his body is closer to the mantelpiece than it is to the bookcase, that one is aware of facts which he is not now observing, that one has expectations about the future and many beliefs of various kinds, some of which are true and others false, that he has had dreams, imagined things, and also that there exist very many other human bodies which have had experiences of a similar kind.
But it can be treated also as an internal question in the material object framework. What Carnap needs is a criterion for being a linguistic framework that makes it impossible to interpret external questions as internal questions in another framework. What would satisfy this requirement? 2011 00:08:42] Document Previous Released By -TSJ5J- Next Page 31 tity presupposes that way of talking. For instance, talk about elephants presupposes the linguistic framework for material objects, while talk about material objects is, in some sense, fundamental so that it presupposes nothing for settling internal questions about material objects.