• Ockham: Philosophical Writings (Hackett Classics)

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    Al-Ghazali, however, was the first theologian to undertake a systematic refutation of the concept of a necessary causal nexus. Augustine, etc), reference any other related documents and commentaries on it, and note down any disagreements and points of contention. The very name "medieval" (literally, "the in-between time") philosophy suggests the tendency of modern thinkers to skip rather directly from Aristotle to the Renaissance. A Survey of the Relevant Materials in the Firkovitch-Collection, St.
  • Thomas Aquinas: Contemporary Philosophical Perspectives

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    People are starting to use the Socratic method whenever they ask themselves why they do the things they do, what makes them feel as they do, and why the world is the way it is. In the previous post, I examined Aquinas’ thesis of natural law. Although, there is also the question of whether the English word 'wisdom' is the best translation of the Greek word 'sophia'. Despite this, it is possible to discern common interests and intellectual positions between Western and Indian philosophy, such as positions concerning logic and epistemology (the study of knowledge).
  • Revolutionary Saints: Heidegger, National Socialism, and

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    This was nearly a century of time for people to create new religions, literary works, philosophical theories, and new ways of thinking. And in distinction to the assertion that we only find the solution in the principles of a fixed and permanent content form a reconciliation here and now, they adopt a position of independence, and assume an intellectual standing-ground which they find in what has generally been termed the healthy human understanding.
  • The Philosophy of Aquinas

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    The later Upanishads helped developed a system of psychological realities--higher and lower thoughts and feelings--that were both spiritual and real at the same time, something like Plato's invisible "Ideas." During his time there, the people of Sicily persuaded Cicero to bring charges against their old governor Gaius Verres, who had used his position to plunder the populace. For information on some contributors to medieval logic, see the articles Albert of Saxony, Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius ), John Buridan, John Wyclif, Johannes Sharpe, Paul of Venice, Peter Abelard, Peter of Spain, Richard Kilvington, Richard the Sophister, Roger Bacon, Thomas of Erfurt, Walter Burley, William Heytesbury, and William of Ockham.
  • The Humanistic Tradition Book 3: The European Renaissance,

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    His ideas were widely influential, with his most famous student being William of Ockham. Baldassare Castiglione's book, The Courtier (1528) is a reflection of this ideal. 2. Berthold, Cornelius, “The Leipzig Manuscript of the Kitâb al-Zîna by the Ismaili Author Abû Hâtim al-Râzî (d. 322/933-934),” Journal of Islamic Manuscripts, 5.1 (2014): 19-42. The religious rites of Jews may be tolerated, but not those of other unbelievers, except to avoid strife or in hope of their gradual conversion (Summa, 2–2, q. 10, a. 11 ).
  • On the Use and Abuse of Alcoholic Liquors in Health and

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    It had been addressed for the most part to any well educated reader interested in the topics being discussed. Different truths can hold for different people at different times. Just as the Ghost appears Catholic, Protestant, devilish, or dead at various moments in the play, so too every demonic possession in literature could appear to some early modern readers or spectators as melancholy, epilepsy, or enthusiasm instead. For fire is inanimate, and cannot therefore be said to cause anything whatsoever.
  • Medieval Modal Logic & Science: Augustine on Scientific

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    The latter had been shown by reason to be doubtful; might it not then be that there “exists beyond reason a higher authority, which would, upon its manifestation, show the judgment of reason to be invalid, just as the authority of reason had shown the judgment of sense to be invalid?” [52] The analogy of dream is instructive here. Hence every happy person is God; God is by nature one only, but nothing prevents the greatest possible number from sharing in that divinity. (3:10:21-23) This is the doctrine of theosis, or divine sonship, expressed in a manner found also in the writings of both Eastern and Western Fathers and Doctors, including St.
  • HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY VOLUME 3

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    And Huizinga argues that both artistic and religious activities are structurally indistinguishable from play. V., “Ghazâlî and Metaphorical Predication in the Third Discussion of the Tahâfut al-Falâsifa,” American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly, 82 (2008): 391-409. They absorb it with the rest of their knowledge from books written by Christians; they accept it as uncritically and indisputably true. However, please do not simply answer them one-by-one, in a disconnected, "bullet-point," manner.
  • The Birth of Theory

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    He is suffering in the soul and seeking a cure, looking inward after everything externally valuable has been taken from him. Advaita ushered a new era in Indian philosophy and as a result, many new schools of thought arose in the medieval period. In Question 11 he introduces the discussion by expounding the Islamic (Ash‘arite) view of divine knowledge, Since the act of willing implies the knowledge of what is willed, and the whole world has been willed by God, it follows that the whole world is known to Him and is caused by this double act of knowing and willing. [77] But to be capable of knowledge and will is to be alive.
  • Aquinas, Aristotle, and the Promise of the Common Good

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    To make his plea effective, he praised her along with other illustrious women of Greek and Roman mythologies and Dante's beloved, Beatrice, and identified her with the industrious and generous Proverbial "woman of virtue" (Hava Tirosh-Rothschild, Between Worlds: The Life and Thought of Rabbi David ben Judah Messer Leon (1991), pp. 73–77). However, the belief in a human-centered view of philosophy continued to grow.
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